Volume 3 Issue 1
March  2024
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Esquius Jonathan Ruiz, LaGrow Alec P, Jin Haiyan, Yu Zhipeng, Araujo Ana, Marques Rita, Mendes Adlio, Liu Lifeng. Mixed iridium-nickel oxides supported on antimony-doped tin oxide as highly efficient and stable acidic oxygen evolution catalysts[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 015102. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ad16d2
Citation: Esquius Jonathan Ruiz, LaGrow Alec P, Jin Haiyan, Yu Zhipeng, Araujo Ana, Marques Rita, Mendes Adlio, Liu Lifeng. Mixed iridium-nickel oxides supported on antimony-doped tin oxide as highly efficient and stable acidic oxygen evolution catalysts[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 015102. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ad16d2
Paper •

Mixed iridium-nickel oxides supported on antimony-doped tin oxide as highly efficient and stable acidic oxygen evolution catalysts

© 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory
Materials Futures, Volume 3, Number 1
  • Received Date: 2023-11-01
  • Accepted Date: 2023-12-18
  • Rev Recd Date: 2023-12-12
  • Publish Date: 2024-01-04
  • Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis represents a promising technology for green hydrogen production, but its widespread deployment is greatly hindered by the indispensable usage of platinum group metal catalysts, especially iridium (Ir) based materials for the energy-demanding oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, we report a new sequential precipitation approach to the synthesis of mixed Ir-nickel (Ni) oxy-hydroxide supported on antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (IrNiyOx/ATO, 20 wt.% (Ir + Ni), y = 0, 1, 2, and 3), aiming to reduce the utilisation of scarce and precious Ir while maintaining its good acidic OER performance. When tested in strongly acidic electrolyte (0.1 M HClO4), the optimised IrNi1Ox/ATO shows a mass activity of 1.0 mA gIr1 and a large turnover frequency of 123 s1 at an overpotential of 350 mV, as well as a comparatively small Tafel slope of 50 mV dec1, better than the IrOx/ATO control, particularly with a markedly reduced Ir loading of only 19.7 gIr cm2. Importantly, IrNi1Ox/ATO also exhibits substantially better catalytic stability than other reference catalysts, able to continuously catalyse acidic OER at 10 mA cm2 for 15 h without obvious degradation. Our in-situ synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the Ir3+/Ir4+ species are the active sites for the acidic OER. Furthermore, the performance of IrNi1Ox/ATO was also preliminarily evaluated in a membrane electrode assembly, which shows better activity and stability than other reference catalysts. The IrNi1Ox/ATO reported in this work is a promising alternative to commercial IrO2 based catalysts for PEM electrolysis.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Dale S 2021 BP Statistical Review of World EnergyBP p.l.c(available at: https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2021-full-report.pdf)(accessed November 2023)
    Rockstrm J, et al 2009 A safe operating space for humanity Nature 461 472 doi: 10.1038/461472a
    Hu C, Xu J, Tan Y, Huang X 2023 Recent advances of ruthenium-based electrocatalysts for hydrogen energy Trends Chem. 5 225-39 doi: 10.1016/j.trechm.2023.01.002
    Li X, Liu Y, Feng Y, Tong Y, Qin Z, Wu Z, Deng Y, Hu W 2023 Research prospects of graphene-based catalyst for seawater electrolysis Mater. Futures 2 042104 doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/acf2fd
    Wang W, Wang Z, Hu Y, Liu Y, Chen S 2022 A potential-driven switch of activity promotion mode for the oxygen evolution reaction at Co3O4/NiOxHy interface eScience 2 438-44 doi: 10.1016/j.esci.2022.04.004
    Guo Y, Wang Y, Huang Z, Tong X, Yang N 2022 Size effect of Rhodium nanoparticles supported on carbon black on the performance of hydrogen evolution reaction Carbon 194 303-9 doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2022.04.008
    Yang X, Wang Y, Tong X, Yang N 2022 Strain engineering in electrocatalysts: fundamentals, progress, and perspectives Adv. Energy Mater. 12 2102261 doi: 10.1002/aenm.202102261
    Ghosh P C, Emonts B, Janen H, Mergel J, Stolten D 2003 Ten years of operational experience with a hydrogen-based renewable energy supply system Sol. Energy 75 469-78 doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2003.09.006
    Carmo M, Fritz D L, Mergel J, Stolten D 2013 A comprehensive review on PEM water electrolysis Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 38 4901-34 doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.01.151
    Ursua A, Gandia L M, Sanchis P 2012 Hydrogen production from water electrolysis: current status and future trends Proc. IEEE 100 410-26 doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2011.2156750
    Vesborg P C K, Jaramillo T F 2012 Addressing the terawatt challenge: scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy RSC Adv. 2 7933-47 doi: 10.1039/c2ra20839c
    Minke C, Suermann M, Bensmann B, Hanke-Rauschenbach R 2021 Is iridium demand a potential bottleneck in the realization of large-scale PEM water electrolysis? Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 46 23581-90 doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.04.174
    Clapp M, Zalitis C M, Ryan M 2023 Perspectives on current and future iridium demand and iridium oxide catalysts for PEM water electrolysis Catal. Today 420 114140 doi: 10.1016/j.cattod.2023.114140
    Yi Y, Tornow J, Willinger E, Willinger M G, Ranjan C, Schlgl R 2015 Electrochemical degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes at high anodic potential for oxygen evolution in acidic media ChemElectroChem 2 1929-37 doi: 10.1002/celc.201500268
    Xu J, Li Q, Hansen M K, Christensen E, Toms Garca A L, Liu G, Wang X, Bjerrum N J 2012 Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 37 18629-40 doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.09.156
    Karimi F, Peppley B A, Bazylak A 2015 Study of the effect of calcination temperature on the morphology and activity of iridium oxide electrocatalyst supported on antimony tin oxide (ATO) for PEM electrolyser technology ECS Trans. 69 87-98 doi: 10.1149/06916.0087ecst
    Ferro S, Rosestolato D, Martnez-Huitle C A, De Battisti A 2014 On the oxygen evolution reaction at IrO2-SnO2 mixed-oxide electrodes Electrochim. Acta 146 257-61 doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.08.110
    Marshall A T, Haverkamp R G 2012 Nanoparticles of IrO2 or Sb-SnO2 increase the performance of iridium oxide DSA electrodes J. Mater. Sci. 47 1135-41 doi: 10.1007/s10853-011-5958-x
    Oh H-S, Nong H N, Reier T, Gliech M, Strasser P 2015 Oxide-supported Ir nanodendrites with high activity and durability for the oxygen evolution reaction in acid PEM water electrolyzers Chem. Sci. 6 3321-8 doi: 10.1039/C5SC00518C
    Banerjee A N, Kundoo S, Saha P, Chattopadhyay K K 2003 Synthesis and characterization of nano-crystalline fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films by sol-gel method J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 28 105-10 doi: 10.1023/A:1025697322395
    Senthilkumar V, Vickraman P, Ravikumar R 2010 Synthesis of fluorine doped tin oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel technique and their characterization J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53 316-21 doi: 10.1007/s10971-009-2094-z
    Hutchings R, Mller K, Ktz R, Stucki S 1984 A structural investigation of stabilized oxygen evolution catalysts J. Mater. Sci. 19 3987-94 doi: 10.1007/BF00980762
    Oh H-S, Nong H N, Reier T, Bergmann A, Gliech M, Ferreira de Arajo J, Willinger E, Schlgl R, Teschner D, Strasser P 2016 Electrochemical catalyst-support effects and their stabilizing role for IrOx nanoparticle catalysts during the oxygen evolution reaction J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138 12552-63 doi: 10.1021/jacs.6b07199
    Massu C, Pfeifer V, Huang X, Noack J, Tarasov A, Cap S, Schlgl R 2017 High-performance supported iridium oxohydroxide water oxidation electrocatalysts ChemSusChem 10 1943-57 doi: 10.1002/cssc.201601817
    Felix C, Maiyalagan T, Pasupathi S, Bladergroen B, Linkov V 2012 Synthesis and optimisation of IrO2 electrocatalysts by Adams fusion method for solid polymer electrolyte electrolysers Micro Nanosyst. 4 186-91 doi: 10.2174/1876402911204030186
    Faustini M, et al 2019 Hierarchically structured ultraporous iridium-based materials: a novel catalyst architecture for proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers Adv. Energy Mater. 9 1802136 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201802136
    Geiger S, Kasian O, Shrestha B R, Mingers A M, Mayrhofer K J J, Cherevko S 2016 Activity and stability of electrochemically and thermally treated iridium for the oxygen evolution reaction J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 F3132-8 doi: 10.1149/2.0181611jes
    Geiger S, Kasian O, Shrestha B R, Mingers A M, Mayrhofer K J J, Cherevko S 2015 Iridium oxide coatings with templated porosity as highly active oxygen evolution catalysts: structure-activity relationships ChemSusChem 8 1908-15 doi: 10.1002/cssc.201402988
    Reier T, Weidinger I, Hildebrandt P, Kraehnert R, Strasser P 2013 Electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction on iridium oxide model film catalysts: influence of oxide type and catalyst substrate interactions ECS Trans. 58 39-51 doi: 10.1149/05802.0039ecst
    Ruiz Esquius J, Morgan D J, Spanos I, Hewes D G, Freakley S J, Hutchings G J 2020 Effect of base on the facile hydrothermal preparation of highly active IrOx oxygen evolution catalysts ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 3 800-9 doi: 10.1021/acsaem.9b01642
    Gao J, et al 2019 Breaking long-range order in iridium oxide by alkali ion for efficient water oxidation J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141 3014-23 doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b11456
    Massu C, Huang X, Tarasov A, Ranjan C, Cap S, Schlgl R 2017 Microwave-assisted synthesis of stable and highly active Ir oxohydroxides for electrochemical oxidation of water ChemSusChem 10 1958-68 doi: 10.1002/cssc.201601864
    Pfeifer V, et al 2016 The electronic structure of iridium oxide electrodes active in water splitting Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18 2292-6 doi: 10.1039/C5CP06997A
    Pfeifer V, et al 2016 The electronic structure of iridium and its oxides Surf. Interface Anal. 48 261-73 doi: 10.1002/sia.5895
    Pfeifer V, et al 2016 Reactive oxygen species in iridium-based OER catalysts Chem. Sci. 7 6791-5 doi: 10.1039/C6SC01860B
    Pfeifer V, Jones T E, Velasco Vlez J J, Arrigo R, Piccinin S, Hvecker M, Knop-Gericke A, Schlgl R 2017 In situ observation of reactive oxygen species forming on oxygen-evolving iridium surfaces Chem. Sci. 8 2143-9 doi: 10.1039/C6SC04622C
    Willinger E, Massu C, Schlgl R, Willinger M G 2017 Identifying key structural features of IrOx water splitting catalysts J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 12093-101 doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b07079
    Saveleva V A, Wang L, Teschner D, Jones T, Gago A S, Friedrich K A, Zafeiratos S, Schlgl R, Savinova E R 2018 Operando evidence for a universal oxygen evolution mechanism on thermal and electrochemical iridium oxides J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9 3154-60 doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b00810
    Massu C, Pfeifer V, Van Gastel M, Johannes N, Algara-Siller G, Cap S, Schlgl R 2017 Reactive electrophilic OI species evidenced in high-performance iridium oxohydroxide water oxidation electrocatalysts ChemSusChem 10 4786-98 doi: 10.1002/cssc.201701291
    Nong H N, et al 2020 The role of surface hydroxylation, lattice vacancies and bond covalency in the electrochemical oxidation of water (OER) on Ni-depleted iridium oxide catalysts Z. Phys. Chem. 234 787-812 doi: 10.1515/zpch-2019-1460
    Wang C, Moghaddam R B, Bergens S H 2017 Active, simple iridium-copper hydrous oxide electrocatalysts for water oxidation J. Phys. Chem. C 121 5480-6 doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b12164
    Lonar A, Escalera-Lpez D, Ruiz-Zepeda F, Hrnji A, ala M, Jovanovi P, Bele M, Cherevko S, Hodnik N 2021 Sacrificial Cu layer mediated the formation of an active and stable supported iridium oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst ACS Catal. 11 12510-9 doi: 10.1021/acscatal.1c02968
    Sun W, Song Y, Gong X-Q, Cao L, Yang J 2015 An efficiently tuned d-orbital occupation of IrO2 by doping with Cu for enhancing the oxygen evolution reaction activity Chem. Sci. 6 4993-9 doi: 10.1039/C5SC01251A
    Yu A, Lee C, Kim M H, Lee Y 2017 Nanotubular iridium-cobalt mixed oxide crystalline architectures inherited from cobalt oxide for highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction catalysis ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9 35057-66 doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b12247
    Hu W, Zhong H, Liang W, Chen S 2014 Ir-surface enriched porous Ir-Co oxide hierarchical architecture for high performance water oxidation in acidic media ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 12729-36 doi: 10.1021/am5027192
    Alia S M, Shulda S, Ngo C, Pylypenko S, Pivovar B S 2018 Iridium-based nanowires as highly active, oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts ACS Catal. 8 2111-20 doi: 10.1021/acscatal.7b03787
    Moghaddam R B, Wang C, Sorge J B, Brett M J, Bergens S H 2015 Easily prepared, high activity Ir-Ni oxide catalysts for water oxidation Electrochem. Commun. 60 109-12 doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2015.08.015
    Papaderakis A, Pliatsikas N, Prochaska C, Vourlias G, Patsalas P, Tsiplakides D, Balomenou S, Sotiropoulos S 2016 Oxygen evolution at IrO2 shell-IrNi core electrodes prepared by galvanic replacement J. Phys. Chem. C 120 19995-20005 doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b06025
    Nong H N, et al 2018 A unique oxygen ligand environment facilitates water oxidation in hole-doped IrNiOx core-shell electrocatalysts Nat. Catal. 1 841-51 doi: 10.1038/s41929-018-0153-y
    Reier T, et al 2015 Molecular insight in structure and activity of highly efficient, low-Ir Ir-Ni oxide catalysts for electrochemical water splitting (OER) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137 13031-40 doi: 10.1021/jacs.5b07788
    Spri C, Briois P, Nong H N, Reier T, Billard A, Khl S, Teschner D, Strasser P 2019 Experimental activity descriptors for iridium-based catalysts for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ACS Catal. 9 6653-63 doi: 10.1021/acscatal.9b00648
    Nong H N, Gan L, Willinger E, Teschner D, Strasser P 2014 IrOx core-shell nanocatalysts for cost- and energy-efficient electrochemical water splitting Chem. Sci. 5 2955-63 doi: 10.1039/C4SC01065E
    Nong H N, Oh H-S, Reier T, Willinger E, Willinger M-G, Petkov V, Teschner D, Strasser P 2015 Oxide-supported IrNiOx core-shell particles as efficient, cost-effective, and stable catalysts for electrochemical water splitting Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 54 2975-9 doi: 10.1002/anie.201411072
    Ravel B, Newville M 2005 ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for x-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12 537-41 doi: 10.1107/S0909049505012719
    Ruiz Esquius J, Algara-Siller G, Spanos I, Freakley S J, Schlgl R, Hutchings G J 2020 Preparation of solid solution and layered IrOx-Ni(OH)2 oxygen evolution catalysts: toward optimizing iridium efficiency for OER ACS Catal. 10 14640-8 doi: 10.1021/acscatal.0c03866
    Ouattara L, Fierro S, Frey O, Koudelka M, Comninellis C 2009 Electrochemical comparison of IrO2 prepared by anodic oxidation of pure iridium and IrO2 prepared by thermal decomposition of H2IrCl6 precursor solution J. Appl. Electrochem. 39 1361-7 doi: 10.1007/s10800-009-9809-2
    Fierro S, Kapaka A, Comninellis C 2010 Electrochemical comparison between IrO2 prepared by thermal treatment of iridium metal and IrO2 prepared by thermal decomposition of H2IrCl6 solution Electrochem. Commun. 12 172-4 doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2009.11.018
    Chourashiya M G, Urakawa A 2017 Solution combustion synthesis of highly dispersible and dispersed iridium oxide as an anode catalyst in PEM water electrolysis J. Mater. Chem. A 5 4774-8 doi: 10.1039/C6TA11047A
    Qu Y, Zhou W, Miao X, Li Y, Jiang L, Pan K, Tian G, Ren Z, Wang G, Fu H 2013 A new layered photocathode with porous NiO nanosheets: an effective candidate for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells Chem. Asian J. 8 3085-90 doi: 10.1002/asia.201300707
    Moulder J F, Stickle W F, Sobol P E, Bomben K D 1992 Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS DataPhysical Electronics Division, Perkin-Elmer Corporation
    Mom R V, Falling L J, Kasian O, Algara-Siller G, Teschner D, Crabtree R H, Knop-Gericke A, Mayrhofer K J J, Velasco-Vlez -J-J, Jones T E 2022 Operando structure-activity-stability relationship of iridium oxides during the oxygen evolution reaction ACS Catal. 12 5174-84 doi: 10.1021/acscatal.1c05951
    Cruz A M, et al 2012 Iridium oxohydroxide, a significant member in the family of iridium oxides. Stoichiometry, characterization, and implications in bioelectrodes J. Phys. Chem. C 116 5155-68 doi: 10.1021/jp212275q
    Frevel L J, Mom R, Velasco-Vlez -J-J, Plodinec M, Knop-Gericke A, Schlgl R, Jones T E 2019 In situ x-ray spectroscopy of the electrochemical development of iridium nanoparticles in confined electrolyte J. Phys. Chem. C 123 9146-52 doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00731
    Freakley S J, Ruiz-Esquius J, Morgan D J 2017 The x-ray photoelectron spectra of Ir, IrO2 and IrCl3 revisited Surf. Interface Anal. 49 794-9 doi: 10.1002/sia.6225
    Abbott D F, Lebedev D, Waltar K, Povia M, Nachtegaal M, Fabbri E, Copret C, Schmidt T J 2016 Iridium oxide for the oxygen evolution reaction: correlation between particle size, morphology, and the surface hydroxo layer from operando XAS Chem. Mater. 28 6591-604 doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02625
    McIntyre N S, Cook M G 1975 X-ray photoelectron studies on some oxides and hydroxides of cobalt, nickel, and copper Anal. Chem. 47 2208-13 doi: 10.1021/ac60363a034
    Biesinger M C, Payne B P, Lau L W M, Gerson A, Smart R S C 2009 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems Surf. Interface Anal. 41 324-32 doi: 10.1002/sia.3026
    Nattino F, Marzari N 2020 Operando XANES from first-principles and its application to iridium oxide Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 22 10807-18 doi: 10.1039/C9CP06726D
    Mo Y, Stefan I C, Cai W-B, Dong J, Carey P, Scherson D A 2002 In situ iridium LIII-edge x-ray absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of electrodeposited iridium oxide films in aqueous electrolytes J. Phys. Chem. B 106 3681-6 doi: 10.1021/jp014452p
    Smith R D L, Sporinova B, Fagan R D, Trudel S, Berlinguette C P 2014 Facile photochemical preparation of amorphous iridium oxide films for water oxidation catalysis Chem. Mater. 26 1654-9 doi: 10.1021/cm4041715
    Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N 2004 Oxygen evolution reaction on IrO2-based DSA type electrodes: kinetics analysis of Tafel lines and EIS Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 29 791-7 doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2003.09.007
    Diaz-Morales O, Raaijman S, Kortlever R, Kooyman P J, Wezendonk T, Gascon J, Fu W T, Koper M T M 2016 Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media Nat. Commun. 7 12363 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12363
    Reier T, Oezaslan M, Strasser P 2012 Electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on Ru, Ir, and Pt catalysts: a comparative study of nanoparticles and bulk materials ACS Catal. 2 1765-72 doi: 10.1021/cs3003098
    Lee Y, Suntivich J, May K J, Perry E E, Shao-Horn Y 2012 Synthesis and activities of rutile IrO2 and RuO2 nanoparticles for oxygen evolution in acid and alkaline solutions J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3 399-404 doi: 10.1021/jz2016507
    Juodkazyt J, ebeka B, Valsiunas I, Juodkazis K 2005 Iridium anodic oxidation to Ir(III) and Ir(IV) hydrous oxides Electroanalysis 17 947-52 doi: 10.1002/elan.200403200
    Chen L, Dong X, Wang Y, Xia Y 2016 Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide Nat. Commun. 7 11741 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11741
    Lassalle-Kaiser B, Gul S, Kern J, Yachandra V K, Yano J 2017 In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard x-ray spectroscopy J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 221 18-27 doi: 10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.001
    Agoston R, Abu Sayeed M, Jones M W M, de Jonge M D, O’Mullane A P 2019 Monitoring compositional changes in Ni(OH)2 electrocatalysts employed in the oxygen evolution reaction Analyst 144 7318-25 doi: 10.1039/C9AN01905G
    McCrory C C L, Jung S, Peters J C, Jaramillo T F 2013 Benchmarking heterogeneous electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 16977-87 doi: 10.1021/ja407115p
    Fabbri E, Habereder A, Waltar K, Ktz R, Schmidt T J 2014 Developments and perspectives of oxide-based catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction Catal. Sci. Technol. 4 3800-21 doi: 10.1039/C4CY00669K
    Trasatti S, Petrii O A 1991 Real surface area measurements in electrochemistry Pure Appl. Chem. 63 711-34 doi: 10.1351/pac199163050711
    Zeradjanin A R, Masa J, Spanos I, Schlgl R 2021 Activity and stability of oxides during oxygen evolution reactionfrom mechanistic controversies toward relevant electrocatalytic descriptors Front. Energy Res. 8 405 doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2020.613092
    Jovanovi P, et al 2017 Electrochemical dissolution of iridium and iridium oxide particles in acidic media: transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical flow cell coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy study J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 12837-46 doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b08071
    Cherevko S, Reier T, Zeradjanin A R, Pawolek Z, Strasser P, Mayrhofer K J J 2014 Stability of nanostructured iridium oxide electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction in acidic environment Electrochem. Commun. 48 81-85 doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2014.08.027
    Kasian O, Grote J-P, Geiger S, Cherevko S, Mayrhofer K J J 2018 The common intermediates of oxygen evolution and dissolution reactions during water electrolysis on iridium Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57 2488-91 doi: 10.1002/anie.201709652
    Zeradjanin A R, Topalov A A, Van Overmeere Q, Cherevko S, Chen X, Ventosa E, Schuhmann W, Mayrhofer K J J 2014 Rational design of the electrode morphology for oxygen evolutionenhancing the performance for catalytic water oxidation RSC Adv. 4 9579-87 doi: 10.1039/c3ra45998e
    Spri C, Kwan J T H, Bonakdarpour A, Wilkinson D P, Strasser P 2017 The stability challenges of oxygen evolving catalysts: towards a common fundamental understanding and mitigation of catalyst degradation Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 56 5994-6021 doi: 10.1002/anie.201608601
    Tsotridis G, Pilenga A, European Commission, Joint Research Centre 2021 EU Harmonized Protocols for Testing of Low Temperature Water ElectrolysisPublications Office
    Li B, Wan K, Xie M, Chu T, Wang X, Li X, Yang D, Ming P, Zhang C 2022 Durability degradation mechanism and consistency analysis for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack Appl. Energy 314 119020 doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.119020
    Zhong D, Lin R, Jiang Z, Zhu Y, Liu D, Cai X, Chen L 2020 Low temperature durability and consistency analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack based on comprehensive characterizations Appl. Energy 264 114626 doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114626
  • 加载中


    Figures(7)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(246) PDF downloads(27)
    Article Statistics
    Related articles from


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint