Volume 3 Issue 1
March  2024
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Xiao-Lei Shi, Shuai Sun, Ting Wu, Jian Tu, Zhiming Zhou, Qingfeng Liu, Zhi-Gang Chen. Weavable thermoelectrics: advances, controversies, and future developments[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 012103. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ad0ca9
Citation: Xiao-Lei Shi, Shuai Sun, Ting Wu, Jian Tu, Zhiming Zhou, Qingfeng Liu, Zhi-Gang Chen. Weavable thermoelectrics: advances, controversies, and future developments[J]. Materials Futures, 2024, 3(1): 012103. doi: 10.1088/2752-5724/ad0ca9
Topical Review •
OPEN ACCESS

Weavable thermoelectrics: advances, controversies, and future developments

© 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory
Materials Futures, Volume 3, Number 1
  • Received Date: 2023-10-11
  • Accepted Date: 2023-11-14
  • Publish Date: 2024-01-03
  • Owing to the capability of the conversion between thermal energy and electrical energy and their advantages of light weight, compactness, noise-free operation, and precision reliability, wearable thermoelectrics show great potential for diverse applications. Among them, weavable thermoelectrics, a subclass with inherent flexibility, wearability, and operability, find utility in harnessing waste heat from irregular heat sources. Given the rapid advancements in this field, a timely review is essential to consolidate the progress and challenge. Here, we provide an overview of the state of weavable thermoelectric materials and devices in wearable smart textiles, encompassing mechanisms, materials, fabrications, device structures, and applications from recent advancements, challenges, and prospects. This review can serve as a valuable reference for researchers in the field of flexible wearable thermoelectric materials and devices and their applications.

  • loading
  • [1]
    Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 Advanced thermoelectric design: from materials and structures to devices Chem. Rev. 120 7399–515
    [2]
    Zheng X F, Liu C X, Yan Y Y and Wang Q 2014 A review of thermoelectrics research—recent developments and potentials for sustainable and renewable energy applications Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 32 486–503
    [3]
    Chen W-Y, Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2022 Thermoelectric coolers: progress, challenges, and opportunities Small Methods 6 2101235
    [4]
    Xiao Y and Zhao L-D 2020 Seeking new, highly effective thermoelectrics Science 367 1196
    [5]
    Yang Q, Yang S, Qiu P, Peng L, Wei T-R, Zhang Z, Shi X and Chen L 2022 Flexible thermoelectrics based on ductile semiconductors Science 377 854–8
    [6]
    Jiang B et al 2021 High-entropy-stabilized chalcogenides with high thermoelectric performance Science 371 830–4
    [7]
    Zheng Y, Slade T J, Hu L, Tan X Y, Luo Y, Luo Z-Z, Xu J, Yan Q and Kanatzidis M G 2021 Defect engineering in thermoelectric materials: what have we learned? Chem. Soc. Rev. 50 9022–54
    [8]
    Tan G, Zhao L D and Kanatzidis M G 2016 Rationally designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials Chem. Rev. 116 12123–49
    [9]
    Shi X-L, Chen W-Y, Tao X, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 Rational structure design and manipulation advance SnSe thermoelectrics Mater. Horiz. 7 3065–96
    [10]
    Hooshmand Zaferani S, Ghomashchi R and Vashaee D 2019 Strategies for engineering phonon transport in Heusler thermoelectric compounds Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 112 158–69
    [11]
    He J and Tritt T M 2017 Advances in thermoelectric materials research: looking back and moving forward Science 357 eaak9997
    [12]
    Hong M, Li M, Wang Y, Shi X-L and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in versatile GeTe thermoelectrics from materials to devices Adv. Mater. 35 2208272
    [13]
    Chen W-Y, Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2022 Thermoelectric coolers for on-chip thermal management: materials, design, and optimization Mater. Sci. Eng. R 151 100700
    [14]
    He R, Schierning G and Nielsch K 2018 Thermoelectric devices: a review of devices, architectures, and contact optimization Adv. Mater. Technol. 3 1700256
    [15]
    Zoui M A, Bentouba S, Stocholm J G and Bourouis M 2020 A review on thermoelectric generators: progress and applications Energies 13 3606
    [16]
    Patil P and Patil A 2013 Review on thermoelectric devices Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 3 681–8
    [17]
    Jaziri N, Boughamoura A, Müller J, Mezghani B, Tounsi F and Ismail M 2020 A comprehensive review of thermoelectric generators: technologies and common applications Energy Rep. 6 264–87
    [18]
    Biswas K, Ren Z, Grin Y, Lee K H, Mori T and Chen L 2022 Thermoelectric materials science and technology toward applications Appl. Phys. Lett. 121 070401
    [19]
    Mukherjee M, Srivastava A and Singh A K 2022 Recent advances in designing thermoelectric materials J. Mater. Chem. C 10 12524–55
    [20]
    Zhou X, Yan Y, Lu X, Zhu H, Han X, Chen G and Ren Z 2018 Routes for high-performance thermoelectric materials Mater. Today 21 974–88
    [21]
    Luo Y, Li M, Yuan H, Liu H and Fang Y 2023 Predicting lattice thermal conductivity via machine learning: a mini review npj Comput. Mater. 9 4
    [22]
    Wang Y, Hu Y-J, Bocklund B, Shang S-L, Zhou B-C, Liu Z-K and Chen L-Q 2018 First-principles thermodynamic theory of Seebeck coefficients Phys. Rev. B 98 224101
    [23]
    Cao T, Shi X-L, Li M, Hu B, Chen W, Liu W-D, Lyu W, MacLeod J and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in bismuth-telluride-based thermoelectric devices: progress and challenges eScience 3 100122
    [24]
    Du Y, Shen S Z, Cai K and Casey P S 2012 Research progress on polymer–inorganic thermoelectric nanocomposite materials Prog. Polym. Sci. 37 820–41
    [25]
    Elsaid K, Sayed E T, Yousef B A A, Rabaia M K H, Abdelkareem M A and Olabi A G 2020 Recent progress on the utilization of waste heat for desalination: a review Energy Convers. Manage. 221 113105
    [26]
    Zhang D, Lim W Y S, Duran S S F, Loh X J and Suwardi A 2022 Additive manufacturing of thermoelectrics: emerging trends and outlook ACS Energy Lett. 7 720–35
    [27]
    Hu B, Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2022 Thermoelectrics for medical applications: progress, challenges, and perspectives Chem. Eng. J. 437 135268
    [28]
    Zhang Q, Deng K, Wilkens L, Reith H and Nielsch K 2022 Micro-thermoelectric devices Nat. Electron. 5 333–47
    [29]
    Pecunia V, Silva S R P, Phillips J D, Artegiani E, Romeo A, Shim H, Park J, Kim J H, Yun J S and Welch G C 2023 Roadmap on energy harvesting materials J. Phys. Mater. 6 042501
    [30]
    Liu W-D, Wang D-Z, Liu Q, Zhou W, Shao Z and Chen Z-G 2020 High-performance GeTe-based thermoelectrics: from materials to devices Adv. Energy Mater. 10 2000367
    [31]
    Zhang X, Bu Z, Lin S, Chen Z, Li W and Pei Y 2020 GeTe thermoelectrics Joule 4 986–1003
    [32]
    Chen Z-G, Shi X, Zhao L-D and Zou J 2018 High-performance SnSe thermoelectric materials: progress and future challenge Prog. Mater. Sci. 97 283–346
    [33]
    Zhou C et al 2021 Polycrystalline SnSe with a thermoelectric figure of merit greater than the single crystal Nat. Mater. 20 1378–84
    [34]
    Liu D et al 2023 Lattice plainification advances highly effective SnSe crystalline thermoelectrics Science 380 841–6
    [35]
    Shi X-L, Liu W-D, Li M, Sun Q, Xu S-D, Du D, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2022 A solvothermal synthetic environmental design for high-performance SnSe-based thermoelectric materials Adv. Energy Mater. 12 2200670
    [36]
    Shi X-L, Tao X, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 High-performance thermoelectric SnSe: aqueous synthesis, innovations, and challenges Adv. Sci. 7 1902923
    [37]
    Liu W-D, Yang L and Chen Z-G 2020 Cu2Se thermoelectrics: property, methodology, and device Nano Today 35 100938
    [38]
    Long Z, Wang Y, Sun X, Li Y, Zeng Z, Zhang L and Chen H 2023 Band engineering of the second phase to reach high thermoelectric performance in Cu2Se-based composite material Adv. Mater. 35 2210345
    [39]
    Zhou Z et al 2023 Compositing effects for high thermoelectric performance of Cu2Se-based materials Nat. Commun. 14 2410
    [40]
    Shittu S, Li G, Zhao X and Ma X 2020 Review of thermoelectric geometry and structure optimization for performance enhancement Appl. Energy 268 115075
    [41]
    Lee G, Kim C S, Kim S, Kim Y J, Choi H and Cho B J 2019 Flexible heatsink based on a phase-change material for a wearable thermoelectric generator Energy 179 12–18
    [42]
    Sun T, Zhou B, Zheng Q, Wang L, Jiang W and Snyder G J 2020 Stretchable fabric generates electric power from woven thermoelectric fibers Nat. Commun. 11 572
    [43]
    Ding T, Chan K H, Zhou Y, Wang X-Q, Cheng Y, Li T and Ho G W 2020 Scalable thermoelectric fibers for multifunctional textile-electronics Nat. Commun. 11 6006
    [44]
    Kim M-K, Kim M-S, Lee S, Kim C and Kim Y-J 2014 Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy Smart Mater. Struct. 23 105002
    [45]
    Chen G, Li Y, Bick M and Chen J 2020 Smart textiles for electricity generation Chem. Rev. 120 3668–720
    [46]
    Weng W, Yang J, Zhang Y, Li Y, Yang S, Zhu L and Zhu M 2020 A route toward smart system integration: from fiber design to device construction Adv. Mater. 32 1902301
    [47]
    Peng Y and Cui Y 2020 Advanced textiles for personal thermal management and energy Joule 4 724–42
    [48]
    Seshadri D R, Drummond C, Craker J, Rowbottom J R and Voos J E 2017 Wearable devices for sports: new integrated technologies allow coaches, physicians, and trainers to better understand the physical demands of athletes in real time IEEE Pulse 8 38–43
    [49]
    Tian R, Liu Y, Koumoto K and Chen J 2019 Body heat powers future electronic skins Joule 3 1399–403
    [50]
    Hu R et al 2020 Emerging materials and strategies for personal thermal management Adv. Energy Mater. 10 1903921
    [51]
    Patel S, Park H, Bonato P, Chan L and Rodgers M 2012 A review of wearable sensors and systems with application in rehabilitation J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 9 21
    [52]
    Cao T, Shi X-L and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in the design and assembly of flexible thermoelectric device Prog. Mater. Sci. 131 101003
    [53]
    Jia Y et al 2021 Wearable thermoelectric materials and devices for self-powered electronic systems Adv. Mater. 33 2102990
    [54]
    Zeng W, Shu L, Li Q, Chen S, Wang F and Tao X-M 2014 Fiber-based wearable electronics: a review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications Adv. Mater. 26 5310–36
    [55]
    Dong K, Peng X and Wang Z L 2020 Fiber/fabric-based piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators for flexible/stretchable and wearable electronics and artificial intelligence Adv. Mater. 32 1902549
    [56]
    Gao M, Wang P, Jiang L, Wang B, Yao Y, Liu S, Chu D, Cheng W and Lu Y 2021 Power generation for wearable systems Energy Environ. Sci. 14 2114–57
    [57]
    Liu R, Wang Z L, Fukuda K and Someya T 2022 Flexible self-charging power sources Nat. Rev. Mater. 7 870–86
    [58]
    Nozariasbmarz A et al 2020 Review of wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting: from body temperature to electronic systems Appl. Energy 258 114069
    [59]
    Wang Y, Yang L, Shi X, Shi X, Chen L, Dargusch M, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2019 Flexible thermoelectric materials and generators: challenges and innovations Adv. Mater. 31 1807916
    [60]
    Li C, Jiang F, Liu C, Liu P and Xu J 2019 Present and future thermoelectric materials toward wearable energy harvesting Appl. Mater. Today 15 543–57
    [61]
    Ding J, Zhao W, Jin W, Di C-A and Zhu D 2021 Advanced thermoelectric materials for flexible cooling application Adv. Funct. Mater. 31 2010695
    [62]
    Sun T, Wang L and Jiang W 2022 Pushing thermoelectric generators toward energy harvesting from the human body: challenges and strategies Mater. Today 57 121–45
    [63]
    Wang Y, Yang L, Zheng Y, Wang D and Deng Y 2023 Flexible thermoelectrics: from energy harvesting to human–machine interaction J. Appl. Phys. 133 110901
    [64]
    Yang S, Qiu P, Chen L and Shi X 2021 Recent developments in flexible thermoelectric devices Small Sci. 1 2100005
    [65]
    Liu X and Wang Z 2019 Printable thermoelectric materials and applications Front. Mater. 6 88
    [66]
    Li X, Cai K, Gao M, Du Y and Shen S 2021 Recent advances in flexible thermoelectric films and devices Nano Energy 89 106309
    [67]
    Zhang L, Shi X-L, Yang Y-L and Chen Z-G 2021 Flexible thermoelectric materials and devices: from materials to applications Mater. Today 46 62–108
    [68]
    Bahk J-H, Fang H, Yazawa K and Shakouri A 2015 Flexible thermoelectric materials and device optimization for wearable energy harvesting J. Mater. Chem. C 3 10362–74
    [69]
    Chen Y, Zhao Y and Liang Z 2015 Solution processed organic thermoelectrics: towards flexible thermoelectric modules Energy Environ. Sci. 8 401–22
    [70]
    Wu H, Huang Y, Xu F, Duan Y and Yin Z 2016 Energy harvesters for wearable and stretchable electronics: from flexibility to stretchability Adv. Mater. 28 9881–919
    [71]
    Xu S, Shi X-L, Dargusch M, Di C, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2021 Conducting polymer-based flexible thermoelectric materials and devices: from mechanisms to applications Prog. Mater. Sci. 121 100840
    [72]
    Russ B, Glaudell A, Urban J J, Chabinyc M L and Segalman R A 2016 Organic thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting and temperature control Nat. Rev. Mater. 1 16050
    [73]
    Bharti M, Singh A, Samanta S and Aswal D K 2018 Conductive polymers for thermoelectric power generation Prog. Mater. Sci. 93 270–310
    [74]
    Wang H and Yu C 2019 Organic thermoelectrics: materials preparation, performance optimization, and device integration Joule 3 53–80
    [75]
    Xu X, Zhou J and Chen J 2020 Thermal transport in conductive polymer-based materials Adv. Funct. Mater. 30 1904704
    [76]
    Xu Y, Jia Y, Liu P, Jiang Q, Hu D and Ma Y 2021 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as promising thermoelectric materials and devices Chem. Eng. J. 404 126552
    [77]
    Prunet G, Pawula F, Fleury G, Cloutet E, Robinson A J, Hadziioannou G and Pakdel A 2021 A review on conductive polymers and their hybrids for flexible and wearable thermoelectric applications Mater. Today Phys. 18 100402
    [78]
    Deng L and Chen G 2021 Recent progress in tuning polymer oriented microstructures for enhanced thermoelectric performance Nano Energy 80 105448
    [79]
    Han S, Chen S and Jiao F 2021 Insulating polymers for flexible thermoelectric composites: a multi-perspective review Compos. Commun. 28 100914
    [80]
    Li M, Bai Z, Chen X, Liu C-C, Xu J-K, Lan X-Q and Jiang F-X 2022 Thermoelectric transport in conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Chin. Phys. B 31 027201
    [81]
    Masoumi S, O’Shaughnessy S and Pakdel A 2022 Organic-based flexible thermoelectric generators: from materials to devices Nano Energy 92 106774
    [82]
    Liu Z and Chen G 2020 Advancing flexible thermoelectric devices with polymer composites Adv. Mater. Technol. 5 2000049
    [83]
    Liu W-D, Yu Y, Dargusch M, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2021 Carbon allotrope hybrids advance thermoelectric development and applications Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 141 110800
    [84]
    Blackburn J L, Ferguson A J, Cho C and Grunlan J C 2018 Carbon-nanotube-based thermoelectric materials and devices Adv. Mater. 30 1704386
    [85]
    Zong P-A, Liang J, Zhang P, Wan C, Wang Y and Koumoto K 2020 Graphene-based thermoelectrics ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 3 2224–39
    [86]
    Massetti M, Jiao F, Ferguson A J, Zhao D, Wijeratne K, Würger A, Blackburn J L, Crispin X and Fabiano S 2021 Unconventional thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting and sensing applications Chem. Rev. 121 12465–547
    [87]
    Zhang Y, Zhang Q and Chen G 2020 Carbon and carbon composites for thermoelectric applications Carbon Energy 2 408–36
    [88]
    Hu B, Shi X-L, Cao T, Li M, Chen W, Liu W-D, Lyu W, Tesfamichael T and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in flexible thermoelectric materials and devices fabricated by magnetron sputtering Small Sci. 2300061
    [89]
    Yan W et al 2020 Thermally drawn advanced functional fibers: new frontier of flexible electronics Mater. Today 35 168–94
    [90]
    Kanahashi K, Pu J and Takenobu T 2020 2D materials for large-area flexible thermoelectric devices Adv. Energy Mater. 10 1902842
    [91]
    Ding D, Sun F, Xia F and Tang Z 2021 Design of flexible inorganic thermoelectric devices for decrease of heat loss Nano Res. 14 2090–104
    [92]
    Liu E, Negm A and Howlader M M R 2021 Thermoelectric generation via tellurene for wearable applications: recent advances, research challenges, and future perspectives Mater. Today Energy 20 100625
    [93]
    Wang Y, Lin P, Lou Q, Zhang Z, Huang S, Lu Y and He J 2021 Design guidelines for chalcogenide-based flexible thermoelectric materials Mater. Adv. 2 2584–93
    [94]
    Chen H, Wei T-R, Zhao K, Qiu P, Chen L, He J and Shi X 2021 Room-temperature plastic inorganic semiconductors for flexible and deformable electronics InfoMat 3 22–35
    [95]
    Chen K, Wang L, Luo Z, Xu X, Li Y, Liu S and Zhao Q 2023 Flexible thermoelectrics based on plastic inorganic semiconductors Adv. Mater. Technol. 8 2300189
    [96]
    Loke G, Yan W, Khudiyev T, Noel G and Fink Y 2020 Recent progress and perspectives of thermally drawn multimaterial fiber electronics Adv. Mater. 32 1904911
    [97]
    Peterson K A, Thomas E M and Chabinyc M L 2020 Thermoelectric properties of semiconducting polymers Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 50 551–74
    [98]
    Lee S, Kim S, Pathak A, Tripathi A, Qiao T, Lee Y, Lee H and Woo H Y 2020 Recent progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices Macromol. Res. 28 531–52
    [99]
    Sun K, Zhang S, Li P, Xia Y, Zhang X, Du D, Isikgor F H and Ouyang J 2015 Review on application of PEDOTs and PEDOT:PSS in energy conversion and storage devices J. Mater. Sci. 26 4438–62
    [100]
    Zhao W, Ding J, Zou Y, Di C-A and Zhu D 2020 Chemical doping of organic semiconductors for thermoelectric applications Chem. Soc. Rev. 49 7210–28
    [101]
    Cao T, Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2021 Advances in conducting polymer-based thermoelectric materials and devices Microstructures 1 2021007
    [102]
    Chen J et al 2012 Superlow thermal conductivity 3D carbon nanotube network for thermoelectric applications ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 81–86
    [103]
    Zheng Z-H et al 2023 Harvesting waste heat with flexible Bi2Te3 thermoelectric thin film Nat. Sustain. 6 180–91
    [104]
    Lu Y et al 2023 Staggered-layer-boosted flexible Bi2Te3 films with high thermoelectric performance Nat. Nanotechnol. 18 1281–8
    [105]
    Zhu M, Shi X-L, Wu H, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in Ag2S-based thermoelectrics for wearable electronics: progress and perspective Chem. Eng. J. 475 146194
    [106]
    Wu H, Shi X-L, Duan J, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in Ag2Se-based thermoelectrics from materials to applications Energy Environ. Sci. 16 1870–906
    [107]
    Wei T-R, Qiu P, Zhao K, Shi X and Chen L 2023 Ag2Q-based (Q = S, Se, Te) silver chalcogenide thermoelectric materials Adv. Mater. 35 2110236
    [108]
    Wu H et al 2023 Optimized thermoelectric performance and plasticity of ductile semiconductor Ag2S0.5Se0.5 via dual-phase engineering Adv. Energy Mater. 13 2302551
    [109]
    Tang X, Li Z, Liu W, Zhang Q and Uher C 2022 A comprehensive review on Bi2Te3-based thin films: thermoelectrics and beyond Interdiscip. Mater. 1 88–115
    [110]
    Min H, Shuai S, Wanyu L, Meng L, Weidi L, Xiao-Lei S and Zhi-Gang C 2023 Advances in printing techniques for thermoelectric materials and devices Soft Sci. 3 29
    [111]
    Zeng M, Zavanelli D, Chen J, Saeidi-Javash M, Du Y, LeBlanc S, Snyder G J and Zhang Y 2022 Printing thermoelectric inks toward next-generation energy and thermal devices Chem. Soc. Rev. 51 485–512
    [112]
    Wang L, Fu X, He J, Shi X, Chen T, Chen P, Wang B and Peng H 2020 Application challenges in fiber and textile electronics Adv. Mater. 32 1901971
    [113]
    Lee J, Llerena Zambrano B, Woo J, Yoon K and Lee T 2020 Recent advances in 1D stretchable electrodes and devices for textile and wearable electronics: materials, fabrications, and applications Adv. Mater. 32 1902532
    [114]
    Shi X-L, Chen W-Y, Zhang T, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2021 Fiber-based thermoelectrics for solid, portable, and wearable electronics Energy Environ. Sci. 14 729–64
    [115]
    Chen W-Y, Shi X-L, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 Wearable fiber-based thermoelectrics from materials to applications Nano Energy 81 105684
    [116]
    Zhang L, Lin S, Hua T, Huang B, Liu S and Tao X 2018 Fiber-based thermoelectric generators: materials, device structures, fabrication, characterization, and applications Adv. Energy Mater. 8 1700524
    [117]
    Huang L, Lin S, Xu Z, Zhou H, Duan J, Hu B and Zhou J 2020 Fiber-based energy conversion devices for human-body energy harvesting Adv. Mater. 32 1902034
    [118]
    Zhang P, Deng B, Sun W, Zheng Z and Liu W 2021 Fiber-based thermoelectric materials and devices for wearable electronics Micromachines 12 869
    [119]
    Wang L and Zhang K 2020 Textile-based thermoelectric generators and their applications Energy Environ. Mater. 3 67–79
    [120]
    Shi J et al 2020 Smart textile-integrated microelectronic systems for wearable applications Adv. Mater. 32 1901958
    [121]
    Fang Y, Chen G, Bick M and Chen J 2021 Smart textiles for personalized thermoregulation Chem. Soc. Rev. 50 9357–74
    [122]
    Park K T, Lee T, Ko Y, Cho Y S, Park C R and Kim H 2021 High-performance thermoelectric fabric based on a stitched carbon nanotube fiber ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13 6257–64
    [123]
    Park K T et al 2022 Highly integrated, wearable carbon-nanotube-yarn-based thermoelectric generators achieved by selective inkjet-printed chemical doping Adv. Energy Mater. 12 2200256
    [124]
    Zheng Y et al 2020 Carbon nanotube yarn based thermoelectric textiles for harvesting thermal energy and powering electronics J. Mater. Chem. A 8 2984–94
    [125]
    Culebras M, Ren G, O’Connell S, Vilatela J J and Collins M N 2020 Lignin doped carbon nanotube yarns for improved thermoelectric efficiency Adv. Sustain. Syst. 4 2000147
    [126]
    Heriyanto A D M, Cho Y, Okamoto N, Abe R, Pandey M, Benten H and Nakamura M 2023 Influence of halogen elements in organic salts on n-type doping of CNT yarn for thermoelectric applications RSC Adv. 13 22226–33
    [127]
    Xia X, Zhang Q, Zhou W, Mei J, Xiao Z, Xi W, Wang Y, Xie S and Zhou W 2021 Integrated, highly flexible, and tailorable thermoelectric type temperature detectors based on a continuous carbon nanotube fiber Small 17 2102825
    [128]
    Xiao-Gang X, Qiang Z, Wen-Bin Z, Zhuo-Jian X, Wei X, Yan-Chun W and Wei-Ya Z 2021 Highly flexible and excellent performance continuous carbon nanotube fibrous thermoelectric modules for diversified applications Chin. Phys. B 30 078801
    [129]
    Komatsu N, Ichinose Y, Dewey O S, Taylor L W, Trafford M A, Yomogida Y, Wehmeyer G, Pasquali M, Yanagi K and Kono J 2021 Macroscopic weavable fibers of carbon nanotubes with giant thermoelectric power factor Nat. Commun. 12 4931
    [130]
    Sun T, Chen S, Sun H, Li J, Wu X, Jin L, Wang L and Jiang W 2021 Wavy-structured thermoelectric device integrated with high-performance n-type carbon nanotube fiber prepared by multistep treatment for energy harvesting Compos. Commun. 27 100871
    [131]
    Wen N et al 2020 Highly conductive, ultra-flexible and continuously processable PEDOT:PSS fibers with high thermoelectric properties for wearable energy harvesting Nano Energy 78 105361
    [132]
    Wen N, Fan Z, Yang S, Zhao Y, Li C, Cong T, Huang H, Zhang J, Guan X and Pan L 2021 High-performance stretchable thermoelectric fibers for wearable electronics Chem. Eng. J. 426 130816
    [133]
    Pan Y, Song Y, Jiang Q, Jia Y, Liu P, Song H and Liu G 2022 Solvent treatment of wet-spinning PEDOT:PSS fiber towards wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting Synth. Met. 283 116969
    [134]
    Liu L, Chen J, Liang L, Deng L and Chen G 2022 A PEDOT:PSS thermoelectric fiber generator Nano Energy 102 107678
    [135]
    Gao Q, Wang M, Kang X, Zhu C and Ge M 2020 Continuous wet-spinning of flexible and water-stable conductive PEDOT: PSS/PVA composite fibers for wearable sensors Compos. Commun. 17 134–40
    [136]
    Lund A, Tian Y, Darabi S and Müller C 2020 A polymer-based textile thermoelectric generator for wearable energy harvesting J. Power Sources 480 228836
    [137]
    Reid D O, Smith R E, Garcia-Torres J, Watts J F and Crean C 2019 Solvent treatment of wet-spun PEDOT: PSS fibers for fiber-based wearable pH sensing Sensors 19 4213
    [138]
    Kim Y, Lund A, Noh H, Hofmann A I, Craighero M, Darabi S, Zokaei S, Park J I, Yoon M-H and Müller C 2020 Robust PEDOT:PSS wet-spun fibers for thermoelectric textiles Macromol. Mater. Eng. 305 1900749
    [139]
    Wang X-Y, Feng G-Y, Li M-J and Ge M-Q 2019 Effect of PEDOT:PSS content on structure and properties of PEDOT:PSS/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite fiber Polym. Bull. 76 2097–111
    [140]
    Feng D, Wang P, Wang M, Zhu C, Gao Q and Shen M 2021 A facile route toward continuous wet-spinning of PEDOT: PSS fibers with enhanced strength and electroconductivity Fiber Polym. 22 1491–5
    [141]
    Yuk H, Lu B, Lin S, Qu K, Xu J, Luo J and Zhao X 2020 3D printing of conducting polymers Nat. Commun. 11 1604
    [142]
    Ruan L, Zhao Y, Chen Z, Zeng W, Wang S, Liang D and Zhao J 2020 A self-powered flexible thermoelectric sensor and its application on the basis of the hollow PEDOT:PSS fiber Polymers 12 553
    [143]
    Sarabia-Riquelme R, Shahi M, Brill J W and Weisenberger M C 2019 Effect of drawing on the electrical, thermoelectrical, and mechanical properties of wet-spun PEDOT:PSS fibers ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 1 2157–67
    [144]
    Ge R, Dong X, Sun L, Hu L, Liu T, Zeng W, Luo B, Jiang X, Jiang Y and Zhou Y 2020 Meters-long, sewable, wearable conductive polymer wires for thermoelectric applications J. Mater. Chem. C 8 1571–6
    [145]
    Chen Z, Guan X, Wen N, Pan L and Fan Z 2023 Construction of flexible, self-supporting, and in-plane anisotropic PEDOT:PSS thermoelectric films via the wet-winding approach ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 5 2905–16
    [146]
    Sarabia-Riquelme R, Andrews R, Anthony J E and Weisenberger M C 2020 Highly conductive wet-spun PEDOT:PSS fibers for applications in electronic textiles J. Mater. Chem. C 8 11618–30
    [147]
    Wang Y, Gao C, Zhao C, Chen Z, Ye H, Shen M, Gao Q, Zhu J and Chen T 2023 Engineering PEDOT:PSS/PEG fibers with a textured surface toward comprehensive personal thermal management ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 15 17175–87
    [148]
    Fu Y, Kang S, Gu H, Tan L, Gao C, Fang Z, Dai S and Lin C 2023 Superflexible inorganic Ag2Te0.6S0.4 fiber with high thermoelectric performance Adv. Sci. 10 2207642
    [149]
    Kruppa K, Maor I I, Steinbach F, Beilin V, Mann-Lahav M, Wolf M, Grader G S and Feldhoff A 2023 Electrospun Ca3Co4−xO9+δ nanofibers and nanoribbons: microstructure and thermoelectric properties J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 106 1170–81
    [150]
    Zheng Y et al 2022 Durable, stretchable and washable inorganic-based woven thermoelectric textiles for power generation and solid-state cooling Energy Environ. Sci. 15 2374–85
    [151]
    Zhang J et al 2020 Single-crystal SnSe thermoelectric fibers via laser-induced directional crystallization: from 1D fibers to multidimensional fabrics Adv. Mater. 32 2002702
    [152]
    He X, Li B, Cai J, Zhang H, Li C, Li X, Yu J, Wang L and Qin X 2023 A waterproof, environment-friendly, multifunctional, and stretchable thermoelectric fabric for continuous self-powered personal health signal collection at high humidity SusMat 3 709–20
    [153]
    Meng C, Qian Y, He J and Dong X 2020 Wet-spinning fabrication of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid fibers for high-performance fiber-shaped supercapacitor J. Mater. Sci. 31 19293–308
    [154]
    Liu J, Zhu Z, Zhou W, Liu P, Liu P, Liu G, Xu J, Jiang Q and Jiang F 2020 Flexible metal-free hybrid hydrogel thermoelectric fibers J. Mater. Sci. 55 8376–87
    [155]
    He X, Gu J, Hao Y, Zheng M, Wang L, Yu J and Qin X 2022 Continuous manufacture of stretchable and integratable thermoelectric nanofiber yarn for human body energy harvesting and self-powered motion detection Chem. Eng. J. 450 137937
    [156]
    Zheng Y, Liu H, Chen X, Qiu Y and Zhang K 2022 Wearable thermoelectric-powered textile-based temperature and pressure dual-mode sensor arrays Org. Electron. 106 106535
    [157]
    Wu B, Wei W, Guo Y, Hou Yip W, Kang Tay B, Hou C, Zhang Q, Li Y and Wang H 2023 Stretchable thermoelectric generators with enhanced output by infrared reflection for wearable application Chem. Eng. J. 453 139749
    [158]
    Zhang C et al 2021 Highly stretchable carbon nanotubes/polymer thermoelectric fibers Nano Lett. 21 1047–55
    [159]
    Jang D, Park K T, Lee S-S and Kim H 2022 Highly stretchable three-dimensional thermoelectric fabrics exploiting woven structure deformability and passivation-induced fiber elasticity Nano Energy 97 107143
    [160]
    Xu C, Yang S, Li P, Wang H, Li H and Liu Z 2022 Wet-spun PEDOT:PSS/CNT composite fibers for wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting Compos. Commun. 32 101179
    [161]
    Li H, Liu Y, Liu S, Li P, Zhang C and He C 2023 Wet-spun flexible carbon nanotubes/polyaniline fibers for wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting Composites A 166 107386
    [162]
    Lee T, Lee J W, Park K T, Kim J-S, Park C R and Kim H 2021 Nanostructured inorganic chalcogenide-carbon nanotube yarn having a high thermoelectric power factor at low temperature ACS Nano 15 13118–28
    [163]
    Liu Y, Liu P, Jiang Q, Jiang F, Liu J, Liu G, Liu C, Du Y and Xu J 2021 Organic/inorganic hybrid for flexible thermoelectric fibers Chem. Eng. J. 405 126510
    [164]
    Xu H, Guo Y, Wu B, Hou C, Zhang Q, Li Y and Wang H 2020 Highly integrable thermoelectric fiber ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12 33297–304
    [165]
    Akram R, Khan J S, Qamar Z, Rafique S, Hussain M and Kayani F B 2022 Ultra-low thermal conductivity and thermoelectric properties of polymer-mixed Bi2Te3 nanofibers by electrospinning J. Mater. Sci. 57 3309–21
    [166]
    Yang J, Jia Y, Liu Y, Liu P, Wang Y, Li M, Jiang F, Lan X and Xu J 2021 PEDOT:PSS/PVA/Te ternary composite fibers toward flexible thermoelectric generator Compos. Commun. 27 100855
    [167]
    Yang L et al 2021 High thermoelectric figure of merit of porous Si nanowires from 300 to 700 K Nat. Commun. 12 3926
    [168]
    Park D, Kim M and Kim J 2021 High-performance PANI-coated Ag2Se nanowire and PVDF thermoelectric composite film for flexible energy harvesting J. Alloys Compd. 884 161098
    [169]
    Lv H, Liang L, Zhang Y, Deng L, Chen Z, Liu Z, Wang H and Chen G 2021 A flexible spring-shaped architecture with optimized thermal design for wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting Nano Energy 88 106260
    [170]
    Wang K, Hou C, Zhang Q, Li Y and Wang H 2022 Highly integrated fiber-shaped thermoelectric generators with radially heterogeneous interlayers Nano Energy 95 107055
    [171]
    Mytafides C K, Tzounis L, Karalis G, Formanek P and Paipetis A S 2021 High-power all-carbon fully printed and wearable SWCNT-based organic thermoelectric generator ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13 11151–65
    [172]
    Hasan M N, Nayan N, Nafea M, Muthalif A G A and Ali M M S 2022 Novel structural design of wearable thermoelectric generator with vertically oriented thermoelements Energy 259 125032
    [173]
    Hou Y, Yang Y, Wang Z, Li Z, Zhang X, Bethers B, Xiong R, Guo H and Yu H 2022 Whole fabric-assisted thermoelectric devices for wearable electronics Adv. Sci. 9 2103574
    [174]
    Jing Y et al 2023 Scalable manufacturing of a durable, tailorable, and recyclable multifunctional woven thermoelectric textile system Energy Environ. Sci. 16 4334–44
    [175]
    Kim W-G, Kim D, Lee H M and Choi Y-K 2022 Wearable fabric-based hybrid energy harvester from body motion and body heat Nano Energy 100 107485
    [176]
    He X, Zhang X, Zhang H, Li C, Luo Q, Li X, Wang L and Qin X 2022 Facile fabrication of stretchable and multifunctional thermoelectric composite fabrics with strain-enhanced self-powered sensing performance Compos. Commun. 35 101275
    [177]
    Rousti A M, Maji T, Drew C, Kumar J and Christodouleas D C 2021 High-performance thermoelectric fabric based on PEDOT:tosylate/CuI Appl. Mater. Today 25 101180
    [178]
    Vinodhini J, Shalini V, Harish S, Ikeda H, Archana J and Navaneethan M 2023 Solvent-assisted synthesis of Ag2Se and Ag2S nanoparticles on carbon fabric for enhanced thermoelectric performance J. Colloid Interface Sci. 651 436–47
    [179]
    Liu S, Zhang M, Kong J, Li H and He C 2023 Flexible, durable, green thermoelectric composite fabrics for textile-based wearable energy harvesting and self-powered sensing Compos. Sci. Technol. 243 110245
    [180]
    Serrano-Claumarchirant J F, Nasiri M A, Cho C, Cantarero A, Culebras M and Gómez C M 2023 Textile-based thermoelectric generator produced via electrochemical polymerization Adv. Mater. Interfaces 10 2202105
    [181]
    Liu Y, Wang X, Hou S, Wu Z, Wang J, Mao J, Zhang Q, Liu Z and Cao F 2023 Scalable-produced 3D elastic thermoelectric network for body heat harvesting Nat. Commun. 14 3058
    [182]
    Zhang X, Li T-T, Jiang Q, Wu L, Ren H-T, Peng H-K, Shiu B-C, Wang Y, Lou C-W and Lin J-H 2020 Worm-like PEDOT:Tos coated polypropylene fabrics via low-temperature interfacial polymerization for high-efficiency thermoelectric textile Prog. Org. Coat. 149 105919
    [183]
    He X, Shi J, Hao Y, He M, Cai J, Qin X, Wang L and Yu J 2022 Highly stretchable, durable, and breathable thermoelectric fabrics for human body energy harvesting and sensing Carbon Energy 4 621–32
    [184]
    Zhang D et al 2023 3D-printed porous thermoelectrics for in situ energy harvesting ACS Energy Lett. 8 332–8
    [185]
    Selestina A, Sudha L, Vijay V, Karunagaran N and Navaneethan M 2023 Enhanced thermoelectric power factor of Se-doped SnS nanostructures for flexible thermoelectric applications J. Mater. Sci. 34 255
    [186]
    Shi T et al 2023 Modifying carbon fiber fabric for flexible thermoelectric energy conversion Appl. Surf. Sci. 610 155479
    [187]
    Xing S-C, Yu C and Gao C-F 2021 Analysis of a hollow fiber in thermoelectric materials considering interfacial thermal resistance J. Appl. Math. Mech. 101 e202000158
    [188]
    Zhang L-S, Yang B, Lin S-P, Hua T and Tao X-M 2020 Predicting performance of fiber thermoelectric generator arrays in wearable electronic applications Nano Energy 76 105117
    [189]
    Zhu P, Wang Y, Wang Y, Mao H, Zhang Q and Deng Y 2020 Flexible 3D architectured piezo/thermoelectric bimodal tactile sensor array for E-skin application Adv. Energy Mater. 10 2001945
    [190]
    Sun S, Shi X-L, Li M, Wu T, Yin L, Wang D, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Ultrafast and cost-effective fabrication of high-performance carbon-based flexible thermoelectric hybrid films and their devices ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 15 25650–60
    [191]
    Sun S, Shi X-L, Liu W-D, Wu T, Wang D, Wu H, Zhang X, Wang Y, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2022 Cheap, large-scale, and high-performance graphite-based flexible thermoelectric materials and devices with supernormal industry feasibility ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 14 8066–75
    [192]
    Zheng Z-H et al 2022 Achieving ultrahigh power factor in n-type Ag2Se thin films by carrier engineering Mater. Today Energy 24 100933
    [193]
    Zheng Z-H et al 2021 In-situ growth of high-performance (Ag, Sn) co-doped CoSb3 thermoelectric thin films J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 92 178–85
    [194]
    Sun M, Qian Q, Tang G, Liu W, Qian G, Shi Z, Huang K, Chen D, Xu S and Yang Z 2018 Enhanced thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Bi2Te3 core fibers with preferentially oriented nanosheets APL Mater. 6 036103
    [195]
    Liu X, Shi X-L, Zhang L, Liu W-D, Yang Y and Chen Z-G 2023 One-step post-treatment boosts thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS flexible thin films J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 132 81–89
    [196]
    Wu T, Shi X-L, Liu W-D, Sun S, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2022 Dual post-treatments boost thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS films and their devices Macromol. Mater. Eng. 307 2200411
    [197]
    Wang X, Feng G-Y and Ge M-Q 2017 Influence of ethylene glycol vapor annealing on structure and property of wet-spun PVA/PEDOT:PSS blend fiber J. Mater. Sci. 52 6917–27
    [198]
    Xu S, Hong M, Shi X-L, Wang Y, Ge L, Bai Y, Wang L, Dargusch M, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2019 High-performance PEDOT:PSS flexible thermoelectric materials and their devices by triple post-treatments Chem. Mater. 31 5238–44
    [199]
    Hu Q-X, Liu W-D, Zhang L, Sun W, Gao H, Shi X-L, Yang Y-L, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 SWCNTs/Ag2Se film with superior bending resistance and enhanced thermoelectric performance via in situ compositing Chem. Eng. J. 457 141024
    [200]
    Zhang L, Xia B, Shi X-L, Liu W-D, Yang Y, Hou X, Ye X, Suo G and Chen Z-G 2022 Achieving high thermoelectric properties in PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs composite films by a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide doping and NaBH4 dedoping Carbon 196 718–26
    [201]
    Wang Y, Hong M, Liu W-D, Shi X-L, Xu S-D, Sun Q, Gao H, Lu S, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/PEDOT:PSS-based flexible thermoelectric film and device Chem. Eng. J. 397 125360
    [202]
    Chen R, Lee J, Lee W and Li D 2019 Thermoelectrics of nanowires Chem. Rev. 119 9260–302
    [203]
    Zheng Y, Shi X-L, Yuan H, Lu S, Qu X, Liu W, Wang L, Zheng K, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 A synergy of strain loading and laser radiation in determining the high-performing electrical transports in the single Cu-doped SnSe microbelt Mater. Today Phys. 13 100198
    [204]
    Yang W, Gong W, Hou C, Su Y, Guo Y, Zhang W, Li Y, Zhang Q and Wang H 2019 All-fiber tribo-ferroelectric synergistic electronics with high thermal-moisture stability and comfortability Nat. Commun. 10 5541
    [205]
    El Chaar L, Lamont L A and El Zein N 2011 Review of photovoltaic technologies Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 2165–75
    [206]
    Shen D, Duley W W, Peng P, Xiao M, Feng J, Liu L, Zou G and Zhou Y N 2020 Moisture-enabled electricity generation: from physics and materials to self-powered applications Adv. Mater. 32 2003722
    [207]
    Maiti T, Saxena M and Roy P 2019 Double perovskite (Sr2B ′B ′′O6) oxides for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation—a review J. Mater. Res. 34 107–25
    [208]
    Lin R, Kim H-J, Achavananthadith S, Kurt S A, Tan S C C, Yao H, Tee B C K, Lee J K W and Ho J S 2020 Wireless battery-free body sensor networks using near-field-enabled clothing Nat. Commun. 11 444
    [209]
    Wu Y, Mechael S S, Lerma C, Carmichael R S and Carmichael T B 2020 Stretchable ultrasheer fabrics as semitransparent electrodes for wearable light-emitting e-textiles with changeable display patterns Matter 2 882–95
    [210]
    Homayounfar S Z, Rostaminia S, Kiaghadi A, Chen X, Alexander E T, Ganesan D and Andrew T L 2020 Multimodal smart eyewear for longitudinal eye movement tracking Matter 3 1275–93
    [211]
    Zhu M, Sun Z, Zhang Z, Shi Q, He T, Liu H, Chen T and Lee C 2020 Haptic-feedback smart glove as a creative human-machine interface (HMI) for virtual/augmented reality applications Sci. Adv. 6 eaaz8693
    [212]
    Zhou Z et al 2020 Single-layered ultra-soft washable smart textiles for all-around ballistocardiograph, respiration, and posture monitoring during sleep Biosens. Bioelectron. 155 112064
    [213]
    Meng K et al 2020 A wireless textile-based sensor system for self-powered personalized health care Matter 2 896–907
    [214]
    Wicaksono I, Tucker C I, Sun T, Guerrero C A, Liu C, Woo W M, Pence E J and Dagdeviren C 2020 A tailored, electronic textile conformable suit for large-scale spatiotemporal physiological sensing in vivo npj Flex. Electron. 4 5
    [215]
    Li D, Shi X-L, Zhu J, Li M, Wang J, Liu W-D, Zhao Q, Zhong H, Li S and Chen Z-G 2023 Ce-filled Ni1.5Co2.5Sb12 skutterudite thin films with record-high figure of merit and device performance Adv. Energy Mater. 13 2301525
    [216]
    Tan M, Shi X-L, Liu W-D, Li M, Wang Y, Li H, Deng Y and Chen Z-G 2021 Synergistic texturing and Bi/Sb-Te antisite doping secure high thermoelectric performance in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3-based thin films Adv. Energy Mater. 11 2102578
    [217]
    Wei M et al 2022 Directional thermal diffusion realizing inorganic Sb2Te3/Te hybrid thin films with high thermoelectric performance and flexibility Adv. Funct. Mater. 32 2207903
    [218]
    Zheng Z-H et al 2021 Rational band engineering and structural manipulations inducing high thermoelectric performance in n-type CoSb3 thin films Nano Energy 81 105683
    [219]
    Tan M, Liu W-D, Shi X-L, Shang J, Li H, Liu X, Kou L, Dargusch M, Deng Y and Chen Z-G 2020 In situ crystal-amorphous compositing inducing ultrahigh thermoelectric performance of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 hybrid thin films Nano Energy 78 105379
    [220]
    Tan M, Liu W D, Shi X L, Gao H, Li H, Li C, Liu X B, Deng Y and Chen Z G 2019 Anisotropy control-induced unique anisotropic thermoelectric performance in the n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 thin films Small Methods 3 1900582
    [221]
    Ao D-W et al 2022 Novel thermal diffusion temperature engineering leading to high thermoelectric performance in Bi2Te3-based flexible thin-films Adv. Sci. 9 2103547
    [222]
    Shi X-L and Chen Z-G 2023 Quasi-one-dimensional bulk thermoelectrics Joule 7 1108–10
    [223]
    Shi X-L, Wu H, Liu Q, Zhou W, Lu S, Shao Z, Dargusch M and Chen Z-G 2020 SrTiO3-based thermoelectrics: progress and challenges Nano Energy 78 105195
    [224]
    Xu S, Hong M, Li M, Sun Q, Yin Y, Liu W, Shi X, Dargusch M, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2021 Two-dimensional flexible thermoelectric devices: using modeling to deliver optimal capability Appl. Phys. Rev. 8 041404
    [225]
    Cao R et al 2018 Screen-printed washable electronic textiles as self-powered touch/gesture tribo-sensors for intelligent human–machine interaction ACS Nano 12 5190–6
    [226]
    Satharasinghe A, Hughes-Riley T and Dias T 2020 An investigation of a wash-durable solar energy harvesting textile Prog. Photovolt. 28 578–92
    [227]
    Choi J, Dun C, Forsythe C, Gordon M P and Urban J J 2021 Lightweight wearable thermoelectric cooler with rationally designed flexible heatsink consisting of phase-change material/graphite/silicone elastomer J. Mater. Chem. A 9 15696–703
    [228]
    Huo W, Xia Z, Gao Y, Guo R and Huang X 2023 Flexible thermoelectric devices with flexible heatsinks of phase-change materials and stretchable interconnectors of semi-liquid metals ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 15 29330–40
    [229]
    Mu X, Shi X-L, Zhou J, Chen H, Yang T, Wang Y, Miao L and Chen Z-G 2023 Self-hygroscopic and smart color-changing hydrogels as coolers for improving energy conversion efficiency of electronics Nano Energy 108 108177
    [230]
    Sun S, Li M, Shi X-L and Chen Z-G 2023 Advances in ionic thermoelectrics: from materials to devices Adv. Energy Mater. 13 2203692
    [231]
    Tan M, Liu W-D, Shi X-L, Sun Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Minimization of the electrical contact resistance in thin-film thermoelectric device Appl. Phys. Rev. 10 021404
    [232]
    Ao D-W, Liu W-D, Zheng Z-H, Shi X-L, Wei M, Zhong Y-M, Li M, Liang G-X, Fan P and Chen Z-G 2022 Assembly-free fabrication of high-performance flexible inorganic thin-film thermoelectric device prepared by a thermal diffusion Adv. Energy Mater. 12 2202731
    [233]
    Xu S, Hong M, Shi X, Li M, Sun Q, Chen Q, Dargusch M, Zou J and Chen Z-G 2020 Computation-guided design of high-performance flexible thermoelectric modules for sunlight-to-electricity conversion Energy Environ. Sci. 13 3480–8
    [234]
    Sun W, Liu W-D, Li L, Wang D-Z, Yin L-C, Li M, Shi X-L, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Performance optimization of a dual-thermoelectric-liquid hybrid system for central processing unit cooling Energy Convers. Manage. 290 117222
    [235]
    Li L, Liu W-D, Sun W, Wang D-Z, Yin L-C, Li M, Shi X-L, Liu Q and Chen Z-G 2023 Performance optimization of a thermoelectric-water hybrid cooling garment Adv. Mater. Technol. 2301069
    [236]
    Liang L, Lv H, Shi X-L, Liu Z, Chen G, Chen Z-G and Sun G 2021 A flexible quasi-solid-state thermoelectrochemical cell with high stretchability as an energy-autonomous strain sensor Mater. Horiz. 8 2750–60
  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figures(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(154) PDF downloads(83)
    Article Statistics
    Related articles from

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return